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Moles and harbours


Quarantine Harbor was created by the Quarantine and Platonovsky Mole as well as by the Bakaleynaya quay and was named after the quarantine which wasn’t completed on the quay of by de Volant.


After the work of Von der Fleece the port was consisted of two harbors: Quarantine and Practical which didn’t correspond to their names (see Practical (Military) harbor). Quarantine harbor was designed for observation of vessels to prevent dangerous deceases spreading but because of the available depths for large ships it got additional function to handle export and import cargoes. Here vessels for observations and vessels being handled were staying next to each other. When quarantine was applied the connection with the city was disrupted that was harmful for the trade. The harbor got older and that was one of the reasons of the port’s reconstruction designed by K. Gartley. The data on the harbor of 1850 and 1865 before the reconstruction are given below.

The water of Quarantine Harbor was 23.94 ha. The entrance to the harbor (width was about 320 m) was oriented to the east-north-east. The length of all quays was 1543 m, among which 576 m were operating, the rest of them were not available because of the shallow water. The depth at the harbor varied from 1.2 m to 6.4 m, the latter was at the head of Quarantine mole. Along this part of the mole on the area of 107 m wide vessels were mooring close to each other in several lines. The rest area of the harbor was occupied by the boats and passenger steamers with low draft.


The length of Bakaleynaya quay in 1865 was 747 m. There were different buildings of quarantine and customs, the old house of the port’s captain. The area of the lowest bend of the mole was occupied by public, municipal and private buildings. At the base of the mole, 43 m from the inland quay there was an old, long building for quarantine servants, administrative office, mate’s apartment and canteen. Small huts and wooden sheds randomly scattered between the caserne and the outer side of the mole. There was also butchery and the rest of the territory was an impassable area, especially during the rain.


The head of Quarantine Mole was looked like a semicircular area where Vorontsov Lighthouse was located. Platonovsky Mole served for loading shallow water vessels and boats with grain. 


Before the completion of the main stage of the reconstruction of the port (the construction of the Old breakwater in 1882) the harbor was provided with the fresh water from Odessa-Dnestrovsky firth in 1877. In 1882 the area of the harbor was 22.8 ha; its depth was from 6.71 – 9.76 m.


At the final stage of reconstruction of the port in 1886-83 the wooden construction of Bakaleynaya quay was changed by the concrete wall. By the beginning of XX century the harbor had a water area of 25 ha and depth 8.5 – 9.15 m and berth line 1950 m. That time mainly grain and export-import cargoes were handled there.


Before the reconstruction in 1860 grain export through Quarantine Harbor was 0,41-0,66 mln t, after it – 2.05 mln t (1888), 2.43 mln t (1894), 2.25 mln t (1903).


Before the First World War the harbor belonged to the Foreign Department (in the port’s structure there was also Cabotage Department) which include Quarantine and New harbors, excluding New Mole.


Quarantine harbor had the total berth line length of 2001.3 m, including Quarantine Mole, Bakaleynaya quay, quay of the Foreign Department, Platonovsky Mole.


On Quarantine Mole there were six berths. On three of them grain was handled. Other berths accepted passenger vessels, especially big flow of passengers were pilgrims to Palestine.


On Bakaleynaya quay foreign vessels were loaded through four conveyors and from the overpass. On the adjoining to the quay area there were import cargoes.


Until the beginning of the First World War inspite of the decrease of grain export from 1903 the port was still the leading grain export port of Russia.


In 1930 the volume of grain export increased 882 thousand t, it was handled on the berth No. 7. In the nearest future it had been planned to export up to 1.6 mln t. But it never happened: drought and famine in 1932-33, collectivization, external factors (the Civil War in Spain, Italian aggression against Ethiopia and then the Second World War) converted the Mediterranean Sea into the battleground and disrupted the foreign trade links of the USSR.


After the Second World War the main reconstruction of the harbor and the Old Breakwater was done in 1946-50s. Grain export revived at the harbor. In 1948 over 400 thousand t of grain was exported to England.


In 1955 after 14 years break Vorontsov Lighthouse was lit again at the harbor. After the restoration the port’s harbor became universal.


The container terminal was to be deployed on the reclaimed territory where there had to be container store areas, warehouse for ro-ro cargoes, etc. Cargo handling structure of Quarantine harbor by the early 1990s had 19 freight berths with the total length of 3.9 km.


In 2001 the reconstruction of the berth No. 4 and new areas of the mole was completed with the assistance of “HPC-Ukraina”. New gantry cranes was established on the mole.


In 2005-2010 the partner of the port the stevedoring company “HPC-Ukraina” carried out complete modernization of the container terminal on Quarantine Mole. In particular, the company has purchased three container cranes Liebcherr and eleven rear cranes RTG.


O.N. Sevostyanova


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